The Situationists developed the concept of dérive to encourage a subverted approach to inhabiting the city. The term translates "to drift", suggesting an undirected movement throughout the city scape. This concept inspired Tschumi's own ruminations on movement through space:

"...that the existence of a free place, even if temporary, is an important factor in the development of the revolutionary struggle...It is this very state of uncertainty that the new developments in architecture reside..."

-Bernard Tschumi

In all three examples – Tschumi and Koolhaas' Parc de la Villette schemes – as well as Cedric Price's Fun Palace, there is an attempt to create a case study in political architecture theory. Designed to transform culture, the projects ultimately fail because they are unable to sufficiently displace the dominant cultural space. This renders the dominant culture the authority to determine individual behavior.

In the desire to prove that the world is systematic and ordered, we have spent our existence as a species developing and testing various technologies to assert our opinions as correct. Martin Heidegger discusses our technological orientation to reality in The Questions Concerning Technology, where he develops the term enframing to identify the inevitable outgrowth of the human consciousness, of our constant need to quantify and categorize the world. The consequence, he argues, is our distorted perception that the world is a set of raw materials which culminates in modern technology. Our relationship with nature and technology is framed by our desire for control. 


Heidegger gives the example of the Rhine River to show how technology transforms this relationship; the meaning of the river changes the moment hydroelectric power plants are built on it, transforming the river into a source of energy and power. This is in contrast with the German philosophy of Friedrich Höderlin’s description of the Rhine, where the river is a symbol of contemplation and national pride. Technology has created a world where something is no longer just “good,” instead it must be “good for.” Though our relationship with the world is somewhat contingent on the natural world revealing itself on its own terms, technology controls how we orient ourselves to these resources.


The danger with this narcissistic world view is that we believe that the technology we have developed is enough to predict and understand nature and what it reveals to us, “the threat to man does not come in the first instance from the potentially lethal machines and apparatuses of technology. The actual threat has already afflicted man in its essence. The rule of enframing threatens man with the possibility that it could be denied to him to enter into a more original revealing and hence to experience the call of a more primal truth.”The “network that can be established between these two elements,” (user and the equipment they choose to frame their environment with) is defined in Foucault’s exploration of dispositif and Agamben’s subsequent discussion of the apparatus. This network serves to position the user in a formed view of the world through the use of the apparatus. 

Agamben discusses the idea of the apparatus which he defines as "anything that has in some way the capacity to capture, orient, and control the behaviors and opinions of living beings." These opinions and beliefs can often be divisive which has been manifested in our current dysfunctional social and political climate. 

While the contemporary discourse around the apparatus typically focuses on social media, architecture is an apparatus as well since it has the capacity to orient our behavior.